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Практикум по стилистике английского языка Допущено




В. А. Кухаренко

Практикум по стилистике английского языка

Допущено

Министерством высшего и среднего

специального образования СССР

в качестве учебного пособия

для студентов филологических факультетов

университетов, институтов и факультетов




МОСКВА «ВЫСШАЯ ШКОЛА» 1986


иностранных языков

ББК

ББК 81.2 Англ-9 К 95

Рецензенты:

кафедра английского языка Ленинградского государственного педаго-гического института им. А. И. Герцена (зав. кафедрой д-р филол. наук, проф. 3. Я. Тураева),

д-р филол. наук проф. И. Р. Гальперин

Кухаренко В. А.

К 95 Практикум по стилистике английского языка: Учеб. пособие для студентов филол. фак. ун-тов, ин-тов и фак. ин. яз. —М.: Высш. шк., 1986.— 144 с. — На англ. яз.

30 к.

Цель пособия — помочь студентам применить теоретические знания по стилистике на практике. Основной объем пособия составляют упражнения и задания для самостоятельной работы. Разнообразие иллюстративного материала дает возможность выбора конкретных заданий для отработки каждой темы и каждой методики анализа.


английском языке

к 4602010000-125 220-86 001(01)-8б

ББК 81.2 Англ-9 4И(Аигл)

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© Издательство «Высшая школа», 1986

CONTENTS

Page

ПРЕДИСЛОВИЕ 4

^ PRELIMINARY REMARKS 5

CHAPTER I. PHONO-GRAPHICAL LEVEL. MORPHOLOGICAL

LEVEL 10

Sound Instrumenting. Craphon. Graphical Means 10

Morphemic Repetition. Extension of Morphemic Valency .... 18

CHAPTER II. LEXICAL LEVEL. . 22

Word and its Semantic Structure. Connotational Meanings of a Word.

The Role of the Context in the Actualization of Meaning. ... 22

stylistic Differentiation of the Vocabulary 25

Literary Stratum of Words. Colloquial Words 25

Lexical Stylistic Devices 37

Metaphor. Metonymy. Synecdoche. Play on Words. Irony. Epithet.

Hyperbole. Understatement. Oxymoron 37

^ CHAPTER III. SYNTACTICAL LEVEL 66

Main Characteristics of the Sentence. Syntactical SDs. Sentence Length. One-Word Sentences. Sentence Structure. Punctuation. Arrangement of Sentence Members. Rhetorical Question. Types of Repetition. Parallel

^ Constructions. Chiasmus. Inversion. Suspense. Detachment. Com-pleteness of Sentence Structure. Ellipsis. One-Member Sentences. Apokoinu Constructions. Break. Types of Connection. Polysyndeton.

Asyndeton. Attachment 66

Lexico-Syntactical Stylistic Devices 84

Antithesis. Climax. Anticlimax. Simile. Litotes. Periphrasis. . . 84

^ CHAPTER IV. TYPES OF NARRATION . . 100

Author's Narrative. Dialogue. Interior Speech. Represented Speech.

Compositional Forms 100

CHAPTER V. FUNCTIONAL STYLES 108

Colloquial vs. Literary Type of Communication. Oral vs. Written Form

of Communication 108

Supplement 1. Samples of Stylistic Analysis 120

Supplement 2. Extracts for Comprehensive Stylistic Analysis. . . . 124

List of Authors Whose Texts Were Used in Exercises 140

Subject Index 141

Suggestions for Further Reading 144

ПРЕДИСЛОВИЕ

Предлагаемое учебное пособие рассчитано на 16 часов аудиторных и 16 часов самостоятельных занятий и может быть использовано парал-лельно с лекционным курсом по стилистике современного английского языка или после него.

Цель пособия — помочь студентам выработать навыки стилистического анализа конкретного языкового материала, научить их обнаруживать и правильно интерпретировать языковые явления разных уровней, несущие дополнительную информацию логического, эмоционального, изобрази-тельного и оценочного характера.

Пособие состоит из пяти глав. Каждая глава содержит теоретическое введение, задания для самоконтроля и упражнения. В качестве иллюстра-тивного материала использована англоязычная проза XIX—XX вв. Объем и сложность фрагментов для анализа возрастают к концу каждой главы. Примерная схема анализа дана в приложении в конце пособия.

Пособие содержит тексты для развернутого комплексного стилисти-ческого анализа, предусматривающего использование навыков и умений, закрепленных на материале предыдущих глав.

В конце пособия имеются предметный указатель, список фамилий авторов, чьи произведения были использованы при составлении упраж-нений, и список рекомендуемой литературы.

Автор

^ PRELIMINARY REMARKS

Main Trends in Style Study. Functional Stylistics and Functional Styles.

Forms and Types of the Language. Stylistics of Artistic Speech. Individual

Style Study. Decoding Stylistics. Practical Stylistics. Levels of Linguistic

^ Analysis. Foregrounding. Aims of Stylistic Analysis

The term "stylistics" originated from the Greek "stylos" which means "a pen". In the course of time it developed sev-eral meanings, each one applied to a specific study of language elements and their use in speech.

It is no news that any propositional content-any "idea"-can be verbalized in several different ways. So, "May I offer you a chair?", "Take a seat, please", "Sit down"-have the same proposition (subject-matter) but differ in the manner of expression, which, in its turn, depends upon the situational conditions of the communication act.

70 per cent of our lifetime is spent in various forms of communication activities-oral (speaking, listening) or writen (reading, writing), so it is self-evident how important it is for a philologist to know the mechanics of relations between the non-verbal, extralinguistic denotational essence of the communicative act and its verbal, linguistic presentation. It is no surprise, then, that many linguists follow their famous French colleague Charles Bally, claiming that stylistics is primarily the study of synonymic language resources.

Representatives of the not less well-known Prague school-V. Mathesius, T. Vachek, J. Havranek and others focused their attention on the priority of the situational appropriateness in the choice of language varieties for their adequate func-tioning. Thus, functional stylistics, which became and remains an international, very important trend in style study, deals with sets, "paradigms" of language units of all levels or lan-guage hierarchy serving to accommodate the needs of certain typified communicative situations. These paradigms are known as functional styles of the language. Proceeding from the famous definition of the style of a language offered by V. V. Vinogradov more than three decades ago, we shall follow the understanding of a functional style formulated by I. R. Galperin as "a system of coordinated, interrelated and interconditioned language

means intended to fulfil a specific function of communication and aiming at a definite effect."*

All scholars agree that a well developed language, such as English or Russian, is streamed into several functional styles. Their classifications, though, coincide only partially: most style theoreticians do not argue about the number of functional styles being five, but disagree about their nomen-clature. This manual offers one of the rather widely accepted classifications which singles out the following functional styles:

  1. official style, represented in all kinds of official
    documents and papers;

  2. scientific style, found in articles, brochures, mono-
    graphs and other scientific, academic publications;

  3. publicist style, covering such genres as essay, feature
    article, most writings of "new journalism", public speeches,
    etc.;

  4. newspaper style, observed in the majority of materials
    printed in newspapers;

  5. belles-lettres style, embracing numerous and versatile
    genres of creative writing.

It is only the first three that are invariably recognized in all stylistic treatises. As to the newspaper style, it is often regarded as part of the publicist domain and is not always treated individually. But the biggest controversy is flaming around the belles-lettres style. The unlimited possibilities of creative writing, which covers the whole of the universe and makes use of all language resources led some scholars to the conviction that because of the liability of its contours it can be hardly qualified as a functional style. Still others claim that, regardless of its versatility, the belles-lettres style, in each of its concrete representations, fulfils the aesthetic function, which fact singles this style out of others and gives grounds to recognize, its systematic uniqueness, i. e. charges it with the status if an autonomous functional style. To compare different views on the number of functional styles and their classification see corresponding chapters in stylistic monographs and textbooks, listed on p. 144 of this book.

Each of the enumerated styles is exercized in two forms-written and oral, an article and a lecture are examples of the two forms of the scientific style, news broadcast, on the radio and TV or newspaper information materials-of the newspaper style; an essay and a public speech-of the publicist style, etc.

* Galperin, I. R. Stylistics. M., 1971, p. 253.

The number of functional styles and the principles of their differentiation change with time and reflect the state of the functioning language at a given period. So, only recently, most style classifications had also included the so called poetic style which dealt with verbal forms specific for poetry. But poetry, within the last decades, lost its isolated linguistic position, makes use of all the vocabulary and grammar offered by the language at large and there is hardly sense in singling out a special poetic style for the contemporary linguistic situation, though its relevance for the language of the seventeenth, eighteenth and even the biggest part of the nineteenth centuries cannot be argued.

Something similar can be said about the oratoric style, which, in Ancient Greece, was instrumental in the creation of "Rhetoric", where Aristotle, its author, elaborated the basics of style study, still relevant today. The oratoric skill though has lost its position in social and political life. Nowadays speeches are mostly written first, and so contain all the characteristic features of publicist writing, which made it unnecessary to specify oratoric style within the contemporary functional stratification of the language.

All the above-mentioned styles are specified within the literary type of the language. Their functioning is characterized by the intentional approach of the speaker towards the choice of language means suitable for a particular communicative situation and the official, formal, preplanned nature of the latter.

The colloquial type of the language, on the contrary, is characterized by the inofficiality, spontaneity, informality of the communicative situation. Sometimes the colloquial type of speech is labelled "the colloquial style" and entered into the classification of functional styles of the language, regardless of the situational and linguistic differences between the literary and colloquial communication, and despite the fact that a style of speech manifests a conscious, mindful effort in choosing and preferring certain means of expression for the given communicative circumstances, while colloquial speech is shaped by the immediacy, spontaneity, unpremeditativeness of the communicative situation. Alongside this consideration there exists a strong tendency to treat colloquial speech as an individual language system with its independent set of language units and rules of their connection.

^ Functional stylistics, dealing in fact with all the subdivisions of the language and all its possible usages, is the most all-embracing "global" trend in style study, and such specified

stylistics as the scientific prose study, or newspaper style study, or the like may be considered elaborations of certain fields of functional stylistics.

A special place here is occupied by the study of creative writing of the belles-lettres style, because in it, above all, we deal with stylistic use of language resources, i.e. with such a handling of language elements that enables them to carry not only the basic, logical, but also additional information of various types. So the stylistics of artistic speech, or belles-lettres style study, was shaped.

Functional stylistics at large and its specified directions proceed from the situationally stipulated language "paradigms" and concentrate primarily on the analysis of the latter. It is possible to say that the attention of functional stylistics is focused on the message in its correlation with the communicative situation.

The message is common ground for communicants in an act of communication, an indispensable element in the exchange of information between two participants of the communicative act- the addresser (the supplier of information, the speaker, the writer) and the addressee (the receiver of the information, the listener, the reader).

Problems, concerning the choice of the most appropriate language means and their organization into a message, from the viewpoint of the addresser, are the centre of attention of the individual style study, which puts particular emphasis on the study of an individual author's style, looking for correlations between the creative concepts of the author and the language of his works.

In terms of information theory the author's stylistics may be named the stylistics of the encoder: the language being viewed as the code to shape the information into the message, and the supplier of the information, respectively, as the encoder. The addressee in this case plays the part of the decoder of the information contained in the message, and the problems connected with adequate reception of the message without any informational losses or deformations, i. e., with adequate decoding, are the concern of decoding stylistics.

And, finally, the stylistics, proceeding from the norms of language usage at a given period and teaching these norms to language speakers, especially the ones, dealing with the language professionally (editors, publishers, writers, journal-ists, teachers, etc.) is called practical stylistics.

Thus, depending on the approach and the final aim there can be observed several trends in style study. Common to all

of them is the necessity to learn what the language can offer to serve the innumerable communicative tasks and purposes of language users; how various elements of the language participate in storing and transferring information, which of them carries which type of information, etc.

The best way to find answers to most of these and similar questions is to investigate informational values and possibil-ities of language units, following the structural hierarchy of language levels, suggested by a well-known Belgian linguist E. Benveniste more than two decades ago - at the IX Interna-tional Congress of Linguists in 1962, and accepted by most scholars today if not in its entirety, then at least as the basis for further elaboration and development.

E. Benveniste's scheme of analysis proceeds from the level of the phoneme - through the levels of the morpheme and the word to that of the sentence.

This book of practice is structured accordingly.

The resources of each language level become evident in action, i. e. in speech, so the attention of the learners is drawn to the behaviour of each language element in functioning, to its aptitude to convey various kinds of information.

The ability of a verbal element to obtain extra signifi-cance, to say more in a definite context was called by Prague linguists foregrounding: indeed, when a word (affix, sentence), automatized by the long use in speech, through context developments, obtains some new, additional features, the act resembles a background phenomenon moving into the front 1ine - foregrounding.

A contextually foregrounded element carries more informa-tion than when taken in isolation, so it is possible to say that in context it is loaded with basic information inherently belonging to it, plus the acquired, adherent, additional infor-mation. It is this latter that is mainly responsible for the well-known fact that a sentence means always more than the sum total of the meanings of its component-words, or a text means more than the sum of its sentences. So, stylistic analysis involves rather subtle procedures of finding the foregrounded element and indicating the chemistry of its contextual changes, brought about by the intentional, planned operations of the addresser, i.e. effected by the conscious stylistic use of the language.

For foreign language students stylistic analysis holds particular difficulties: linguistic intuition of a native speaker, which is very helpful in all philological activities, does not work in the case of foreign learners. Besides, difficulties may

arise because of the inadequate language command and the ensuing gaps in grasping the basic, denotational information. Starting stylistic analysis, thus, one should bear in mind that the understanding of each separate component of the message is an indispensable condition of satisfactory work with the message as a whole, of getting down to the core and essence of its meaning.

Stylistic analysis not only broadens the theoretical horizons of a language learner but it also teaches the latter the skill of competent reading, on the one hand, and proprieties of situational language usage, on the other.

Assignments for Self-Control

  1. What are the main trends in style study?

  2. What forms and types of speech do you know?

  3. What is a functional style and what functional styles
    do you know?

  4. What do you know of the studies in the domain of the
    style of artistic speech?

  5. What do you know about individual style study? What
    authors most often attract the attention of style theoreticians?

  6. What is foregrounding and how does it operate in the
    text? 7. what levels of linguistic analysis do you know and
    which of them are relevant for stylistic analysis?




  1. What is decoding stylistics?

  2. What is the main concern of practical stylistics?

10. What is the ultimate goal of stylistic analysis of
a speech product?

^ CHAPTER I. PHONO-GRAPHICAL LEVEL. MORPHOLOGICAL LEVEL

Sound Instrumenting. Graphon. Graphical Means

As it is clear from the title of the chapter, the stylistic use of phonemes and their graphical representation will be viewed here. Dealing with various cases of phonemic and graphemic foregrounding we should not forget the unilateral nature of a phoneme: this language unit helps to differentiate meaningful lexemes but has no meaning of its own. Cf.: while unable to speak about the semantics of [ou], [ju:], we acknowledge

their sense-differentiating significance in "sew" [sou] шить and "sew" [sju:] спускать воду; or [au], [ou] in "bow" бант, поклон etc.

Still, devoid of denotational or connotational meaning a phoneme, according to recent studies,* has a strong associative and sound-instrumenting power. Well-known are numerous cases of onomatopoeia - the use of words whose sounds imitate those of the signified object or action, such as "hiss", "bowwow", "murmur", "bump", "grumble", "sizzle" and many more.

Imitating the sounds of nature, man, inanimate objects, the acoustic form of the word foregrounds the latter, inevitably emphasizing its meaning too. Thus the phonemic structure of the word proves to be important for the creation of expressive and emotive connotations. A message, containing an onomat-opoeic word is not limited to transmitting the logical informa-tion only, but also supplies the vivid portrayal of the situation described.

Poetry abounds in some specific types of sound-instrument-ing, the leading role belonging to alliteration - the repetition of consonants, usually in the beginning of words, and asson-ance - the repetition of similar vowels, usually in stressed syllables. They both may produce the effect of euphony (a sense of ease and comfort in pronouncing or hearing) or cacophony (a sense of strain and discomfort in pronouncing or hearing). As an example of the first may serve the famous lines of E. A. Poe:

...silken sad uncertain

rustling of each purple curtain...

An example of the second is provided by the unspeakable combination of sounds found in R. Browning:

Nor soul helps flesh now more than flesh helps soul.

To create additional information in a prose discourse sound-instrumenting is seldom used. In contemporary advertizing, mass media and, above all, creative prose sound is foregrounded mainly through the change of its accepted graphical repre-sentation. This intentional violation of the graphical shape of a word (or word combination) used to reflect its pronunciation is called graphon.

* See, e.g. Воронин С. В. Основы фоносемантики. Л., 1982, where the author lays foundations for a new linguistic subject - phonosemantics, claiming symbolic relevance of sound for naming objects.

Graphons, indicating irregularities or carelessness of pronunciation were occasionally introduced into English novels and journalism as early as the beginning of the eighteenth century and since then have acquired an ever growing frequency of usage, popularity among writers, journalists, advertizers, and a continuously widening scope of functions. Graphon proved to be an extremely concise but effective means of supplying information about the speaker's origin, social and educational background, physical or emotional condition, etc. So, when the famous Thackeray's character-butler Yellowplush - impresses his listeners with the learned words pronouncing them as "sellybrated" (celebrated), "benny-violent" (benevolent), "illygitmit" (illegitimate), "jewinile" (juvenile), or when the no less famous Mr. Babbitt uses "pee-rading" (parading), "Eytalians" (Italians), "peepul" (people)-the reader obtains not only the vivid image and the social, cultural, educational characteristics of the personages, but also both Thackeray's and S. Lewis' sarcastic attitude to them.

On the other hand, "The b-b-b-b-bas-tud-he seen me c-c-c-c-com-ing" in R. P. Warren's Sugar Boy's speech or "You don't mean to thay that thith ith your firth time" (D.C.) show the physical defects of the speakers - the stumbling of one and the lisping of the other.

Graphon, thus individualizing the character's speech, adds to his plausibility, vividness, memorability. At the same time, graphon is very good at conveying the atmosphere of authentic live communication, of the informality of the speech act. Some amalgamated forms, which are the result of strong assimilation, became cliches in contemporary prose dialogue: "gimme" (give me), "lemme" (let me), "gonna" (going to), "gotta" (got to), "coupla" (couple of), "mighta" (might have), "willya" (will you), etc.

This flavour of informality and authenticity brought graphon

popularity with advertizers. Big and small eating places invite customers to attend their "Pik-kwik store", or "The Donut (doughnut) Place", or the "Rite Bread Shop", or the "Wok-in Fast Food Restaurant", etc. The same is true about newspaper, poster and TV advertizing: "Sooper Class Model" cars, "Knee-hi" socks, "Rite Aid" medicines. A recently published book on Cockney was entitled by the authors "The Muvver Tongue",* on back flaps of big freight-cars one can read "Folio me", etc. Graphical changes may reflect not only the peculiarities

* ^ Baltrop, R., Wolveridge, J. The Muvver Tongue. London, 1980.

of pronunciation, but are also used to convey the intensity of the stress, emphasizing and thus foregrounding the stressed words. To such purely graphical means, not involving the viola-tions, we should refer all changes of the type (italics, capi-talization), spacing of graphemes (hyphenation, multiplication) and of lines. The latter was widely exercised in Russian poetry by V. Mayakovsky, famous for his "steps" in verse lines, or A. Voznesensky. In English the most often referred to "graphic-al imagist" was E. E. Cummings.

According to the frequency of usage, variability of functions, the first place among graphical means of foregrounding is occupied by italics. Besides italicizing words to add to their logical or emotive significance, separate syllables and morphemes may also be emphasized by italics (which is highly characteristic of D. Salinger or T. Capote). Intensity of speech (often in commands) is transmitted through the multiplication of a grapheme or capitalization of the word, as in Babbitt's shriek "Аlllll aboarrrrrd", or in the desperate appeal in A. Huxley's Brave New World-"Help. Help. HELP." Hyphena-tion of a word suggests the rhymed or clipped manner in which it is uttered as in the humiliating comment from Fl. O'Connor's story-"grinning like a chim-pan-zee".

Summing up the informational options of the graphical arrangement of a word (a line, a discourse), one sees their varied application for re-creating the individual and social peculiarities of the speaker, the atmosphere of the communi-cation act-all aimed at revealing and emphasizing the author's viewpoint.

Assignments for Self-Control

  1. What is sound-instrumenting?

  2. What cases of sound-instrumenting do you know?

  3. What is graphon?

  4. What types and functions of graphon do you know?

  5. What is achieved by the graphical changes of writing-
    its type, the spacing of graphemes and lines?

  6. Which phono-graphical means are predominantly used in
    prose and which ones in poetry?

EXERCISES

I. Indicate the causes and effects of the following cases of alliteration, assonance and onomatopoeia:

1. Streaked by a quarter moon, the Mediterranean shushed gently into the beach. (I. Sh.)


  1. He swallowed the hint with a gulp and a gasp and a grin.
    (R. K.)

  2. His wife was shrill, languid, handsome and horrible.
    (Sc. F.)




  1. The fair breeze blew, the white foam flew,
    The furrow followed free. (S. C.)

  2. The Italian trio tut-tutted their tongues at me. (T. C.)

  3. You, Jean, long, lanky lath of a lousy bastard! (O'C.)

  4. To sit in solemn silence in a dull dark dock,
    In a pestilential prison, with a life-long lock,
    Awaiting the sensation of a short, sharp shock

From a cheap and chippy chopper on a big black block. (W. C.)

  1. They all lounged, and loitered, and slunk about, with as
    little spirit or purpose as the beasts in a menagerie. (D.)

  2. "Luscious, languid and lustful, isn't she?"

"Those are not the correct epithets. She is-ог rather was surly, lustrous and sadistic." (E. W.)

  1. Then, with an enormous, shattering rumble, sludge-
    puff, sludge-puff, the train came into the station. (A. S.)

  2. "Sh-sh."

"But I am whispering." This continual shushing an-noyed him. (A. H.)

12. Twinkle, twinkle, little star,
How I wonder what you are.
Up above the world so high,

Like a diamond in the sky. (Ch. R.)

13. Dreadful young creatures-squealing and squawking. (C.)

  1. The quick crackling of dry wood aflame cut through the night. (St. H.)

  2. Here the rain did not fall. It was stopped high above by that roof of green shingles. From there it dripped down slowly, leaf to leaf, or ran down the stems and branches. Despite the heaviness of the downpour which now purred loudly in their ears from just outside, here there was only a low rustle of slow occasional dripping. (J.)

^ II. Indicate the kind of additional information about the speaker supplied by graphon:

1. "Hey," he said, entering the library. "Where's the heart section?"

"The what?"

He had the thickest sort of southern Negro dialect and the only word that came clear to me was the one that sounded like heart.


"How do you spell it," I said.

"Heart, Man, pictures. Drawing books. Where you got them?"

"You mean art books? Reproductions?" He took my polysyllabic word for it. "Yea, they's them." (Ph. R.)

  1. "It don't take no nerve to do somepin when there ain't
    nothing else you can do. We ain't gonna die out. People is
    goin' on-changin' a little may be-but goin' right on." (J. St.)

  2. "And remember, Mon-sewer O'Hayer says you got to
    straighten up this mess sometime today." (J.)

  3. "I even heard they demanded sexual liberty. Yes, sir,
    Sex-You-All liberty." (J. K.)

  4. "Ye've a duty to the public don'tcher know that, a duty
    to the great English public?" said George reproachfully.

"Here, lemme handle this, kiddar," said Tiger. "Gorra maintain strength, you," said George. "Ah'm fightin' fit," said Tiger. (S. Ch.)

  1. "Oh, that's it, is it?" said Sam. "I was afeerd, from
    his manner, that he might ha' forgotten to take pepper with
    that 'ere last cowcumber he et. Set down, sir, ve make no
    extra charge for the settin' down, as the king remarked when
    he blowed up his ministers." (D.)

  2. "Well, I dunno. I'll show you summat." (St. B.)

  3. "De old Foolosopher, like Hickey calls yarn, ain't
    yuh?" (O'N.)

  4. "I had a coach with a little seat in fwont with an iwon
    wail for the dwiver." (D.)*




  1. "The Count," explained the German officer, "expegs
    you chentlemen at eight-dirty." (С. Н.)

  2. Said Kipps one day, "As'e-I should say, ah, has'e...
    Ye know, I got a lot of difficulty with them two words, which
    is which."

"Well, 'as' is a conjunction, and 'has' is a verb." "I know," said Kipps, "but when is 'has' a conjunction, and when is 'as' a verb?" (H. W.)

12. Wilson was a little hurt. "Listen, boy," he told him.
"Ah may not be able to read eve'thin' so good, but they ain't
a thing Ah can't do if Ah set mah mind to it." (N. M.)

* The affected manner of Lord Muttonhead's pronunciation was well preserved in the Russian translation of the ^ Pickwick Papers: «...с гешеткой впегеди для кучега».


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